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PRESS REVIEW N°500
By Gilberte JACARET

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JEWISH CULTURE 264

By Gilberte JACARET



Rare find reveals previously unknown Roman ruler in Judea

Large rock bearing unique inscription discovered off Tel Dor coast by University of Haifa archaeologists


BY TIMES OF ISRAEL STAFF December 1, 2016
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An inscription bearing the name of a previously unknown Roman ruler of Judea was discovered off Tel Dor by the University of Haifa, in January 2016. (Courtesy of the University of Haifa)

Israeli divers working with the University of Haifa have found a rare archaeological artifact shedding light on a previously unknown Roman prefect of the province of Judea in the time before the Bar Kochba revolt.
A large rock bearing a 1,900-year-old inscription was discovered on the seabed off the coast, south of Haifa, in the Mediterranean Sea earlier this year, bearing the name of Gargilius Antiques and mentioning the province of Judea.
The archaeologists were able to determine that Antiques ruled over Judea just prior to the legendary revolt against the Roman Empire, fought from 132 to 136 AD. The uprising was eventually crushed, resulting in the exile of Jews, and Emperor Hadrian's renaming Jerusalem Aelia Capitolina and Judea Syria Palestina.
The artifact, believed to be the base of a statue, was found in January 2016 as part of a maritime excavation at the Tel Dor archaeological site. The city had been an important port in Roman times and was active at least until the fourth century.

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An inscription bearing the name of a previously unknown Roman ruler of Judea was discovered off Tel Dor by the University of Haifa, in January 2016. It is shown here before it was excavated. (Courtesy of the University of Haifa)

The rock, measuring 70 by 65 centimeters and weighing over 600 kilograms, was covered in sea creatures when it was discovered, according to Haaretz.

"Not only were we able for the first time to identify with certainty the name of the ruler who oversaw Judea in the critical years the Bar Kochba revolt; this is also just the second time that the mention of Judea has been discovered in inscriptions traced back to Roman era," said Prof. Assaf Yasur-Landau of Haifa University, who was in charge of deciphering the text.
Antiques's name was first found in an inscription some 70 years ago, but mention of the territory he ruled over was not preserved.
At seven lines, the text discovered this year, Yasur-Landau said, "is the longest discovered in maritime excavations in Israel."
It is missing a portion but is believed to read: "The City of Dor honors Marcus Paccius, son of Publius, Silvanus Quintus Coredius Gallus Gargilius Antiquus, governor of the province of Judea, as well as [...] of the province of Syria, and patron of the city of Dor."
When it comes to Israel, is François Fillon friend or foe?
An examination of statements by France's Republican presidential candidate on Israel, Middle East conflicts, and the Jewish community

BY GLENN CLOAREC November 29, 2016, 6:49 am

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PARIS — This Sunday, some 4.6 million French voters at 10,228 poling stations across France paid two euros each and signed a "charter of right-wing and centrist values" to cast their ballots in a decisive French center-right presidential primary election.

FREE SIGN UP!By evening, François Fillon was declared winner with 66.5 percent of the vote, beating his rival, Alain Juppé, nearly two-to-one. Fillon is now the favored candidate ahead of the May 2017 French presidential elections.

During his tenure as minister and Prime minister, the current deputy of Paris expressed himself on many occasions on a variety of topics of interest to the greater Jewish world, including the French Jewish community, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, and the war in Syria. His statements could at times be described as hostile.

Though the austere man was sequestered from major controversy during the campaign, since winning the first round of primaries last week, he has been criticized in the press for past declarations.
On Wednesday morning, a new controversy broke out when Fillon, who was invited to speak to Europe 1 radio, compared the French Jewish community with the rise of Islamic fundamentalism in the country.
"Fundamentalists are in the process of holding the Muslim community hostage. We must fight that fundamentalism in the way that in the past... we fought some forms of Catholic sectarianism and we fought the drive by Jews to live in a community that did not always respect all the values of the French Republic," he said. (It was unclear what precisely he was referring to.)

The Representative Council of French Jewish Institutions (CRIF) soon responded on Twitter.

"The law of the land is the law: this Talmudic adage has been imposed on Jews since ancient history and requires them to respect the laws of the country in which they live," the organization declared.
The Union of French Jewish students (UEJF) asked the politician to clarify himself and wondered about "the relevance of his remarks, which compared three phenomena that occurred at three different epochs and which reduces Jews, Muslims and Christians to three compact and indistinct religious communities."

'The insularity that once existed was not the Jewish citizens' choice, but the consequence of French society not accepting their peers'

Haïm Korsia, chief rabbi of France, had a phone interview with the former prime minister. The two men recently met at the Grand Synagogue of Paris where they paid homage to Shimon Peres after the Israeli politician's death.

"He insisted on reaffirming the French Jews' attachment to France and its national values, and their concern for integration into French society," explained Yaël Hirschhorn, his communications advisor.
"He also pointed out that the Jewish insularity that once existed was in no way Jewish citizens' choice, but the consequence of French society not accepting their peers at the time," she said.
The chief rabbi "also recalled the role of the Great Sanhedrin, which was set up by Napoleon in 1806, which is none other than the proclamation of the guarantee of being able to practice Judaism in compliance with the laws of the Republic," she added.

However Fillion's spokesman Jérôme Chartier said on i24news that the candidate's words were misunderstood.

"François Fillon is very clear on the fact that sectarian aberrations can exist in any religious movement. Everyone knows it exists. But he always welcomed French Jews' integration, which is not a new phenomenon considering the Consistory dates back from the Napoleonic era. [...] French Jews are as French as French Christians who are as French as French Muslims — except those of course who take part in Islamic fundamentalism and totalitarianism and whom we have to fight against," he explained.
A few hours later, François Fillon reacted to the polemic on Twitter.
"Some people have been trying to interpret a sentence I voiced on Europe 1 this morning," he said. "I never meant to call into question the Jewish community's attachment to our common values and to the respect of the rules of the Republic. This attachment is old and sincere. I therefore regret that some people dared to twist what I said."
During the last broadcasted debate three days before the first round of the primary, the deputy of Paris denounced "the rise of a totalitarian phenomenon" — radical Islamism — more adroitly.
It is the "rise of a political movement [...] which threatens world peace, which has genocidal ambitions and which wants to eradicate Christians living in the Levant and to oust Jews living in Israel," he declared.


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A French soldier patrols in the Jewish quarter of the Marais district, Paris, January 12, 2015. (AFP/ Bertrand Guay)

Last Wednesday was not, however, the first time François Fillon stigmatized the French Jewish community.

'Religions should reflect upon keeping traditions that don't have much in common with today's state of science'

In July, when defending the postponement of some baccalaureate tests for Muslim students celebrating Eid-el-Fitr, he said on RTL radio that, "[Postponement of tests] has always been a French tradition. General de Gaulle is the one who amended that religious Jewish and Muslim French civil servants could choose not to work on important religious holidays.

"The main beneficiaries of this have never been Muslims, but French Jews, who are very intransigent on this issue. The truth is that very few Muslims ever took advantage of this amendment," he said.
He was also under heavy criticism in 2012 when he challenged the Orthodox Jewish custom of ritual slaughter. He was then Prime minister.
"Religions should reflect upon keeping traditions that don't have much in common with today's state of science, technology and health," he said on Europe 1 radio.
In addition to his polemical remarks about the Jewish community, Fillon has repeatedly provoked anger among French citizens sympathetic to Israel.
In November 2015, following the Paris attacks, he declared that he was in favor of a "global coalition" to fight against the Islamic State (IS) which would include Russian, Iranian, Iraqi and Syrian governments, Kurdish movements and the Shiite terrorist organization Hezbollah, whose senior officials he met in July 2013.

'We must support Iran, which is committed to combating IS'

"We must support Iran, which is committed to combating IS," he said on France Inter Radio. "I know many will comment on this point of view, especially in Israel. But for a question of survival, Israel has always known how to ally with people who do not respect international morals. And no one can blame them."

When interrupted by journalist Patrick Cohen, who reminded him that "Hezbollah's vocation is to annihilate Israel," Fillon replied that "letting Hezbollah threaten the State of Israel is out of the question."
"Despite the fact that Hezbollah is a force that physically holds Lebanon and prevents it from acquiring the institutions necessary to continue its democratic march, the position I am defending is no longer isolated, it is also the position of the French government," he added.
Shortly after, in March 2016, François Fillon went to Iran, ostensibly to discuss the economic and social situation in the country and the Middle East.
According to the statement his campaign team published on his website, he insisted to Iranian officials about "the need to build a common international strategy to defeat the Islamic State and to establish the way for a peace process in Syria. He advocated for the Lebanese cause and against the internal divisions and the lack of viable institutions that are threatening the country. He also reiterated the French position vis-à-vis its ally Israel, which is entitled to security and whose existence cannot be challenged. The Palestinians would otherwise not be able to enforce their legitimate right to a state."
Last Monday, on Facebook, following Fillon's victory on the the primary elections' first round, Jewish legislator Meyer Habib — who supported the losing candidate, former president Nicolas Sarkozy — expressed some concerns about this rapprochement with Iran and Hezbollah.

"François Fillon has very solid experience and an ambitious program on economic and social matters," Habib wrote. "But I feel concerned about Israel's foreign policy and security, and he adopted some conflicting positions on this matter. Though François Fillon recently gave proof of friendship to Israel — he notably opposed the BDS movement and denounced the UNESCO vote — I remain concerned about his desire for an alliance with Iran, the Syrian regime and the Hezbollah organization to fight against the Islamic State."
As Member of Parliament Habib pointed out, Fillon vociferously opposed the recent UNESCO vote about the adoption of a controversial resolution on Jerusalem holy sites.
"The recent resolutions are unacceptable and I understand they shocked some people. France should have voted against these unbalanced texts that deny the historical reality of Jerusalem. France does not have to take a side and rewrite the history of others. We must maintain a moderate and objective position to help resolve the conflict," Fillon told Elnet website.

When questioned about the Paris conference, which was announced last June to prelaunch the Israeli-Palestinian peace process, Fillon argued that "we should bring all sides back to the negotiating table so that everyone's interests could be heard."
'Organizing a peace conference in Paris without the concerned protagonists is nonsense'
"Palestinians have a legitimate right to a state," he added. "Israeli territorial integrity and security must also be respected. The negotiations over the past few years have been a failure. Organizing a peace conference in Paris without the concerned protagonists is nonsense. I am against unilateral recognition, but for a dialogue and for the common will to reach a territorial solution. I will personally get involved on this matter. There is a need for a coordination between the European Union and the United States in order to restore some trust between the different sides."
During a three-day visit to Israel in January 2014, Fillon had already supported the country's right to security. During his speech at the Netanya French Campus, he adopted a very pro-Israeli position.

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Patrick Klugman, Harlem Désir, François Fillon and Pierre Lellouche, during the tribute paid to Shimon Peres at the Great Synagogue of Paris on September 29, 2016. (Glenn Cloarec / Times of Israel)

"I feel very honored to be your guest and to talk to the Israeli youth who are the soul of your amazing nation," he said. "Israel's fate and the region's stakes have always fascinated me. This is where the earliest and the most intense pages of humanity were written. I trembled for Israel during the Yom Kippur War. All nations have had to overcome issues to exist and to unite, but Israel is not a nation like any other."

After referring to the Holocaust, he explained that "the French Republic is and will always be uncompromising with anti-Semitism, as was recently the case with a humorist [Dieudonné M'Bala M'Bala] who said abject remarks. In France, anti-Semitism is not an opinion, it is an offense. Things are very clear for me: opponents of French unity and rapists of memory can not exploit freedom of speech."
"Because Israel has strong historical and moral ties with France and Europe, what affects you, affects us, and what torments you, torments us," he continued. "The existence of Israel is not debatable and its security is therefore not negotiable. Israel is our friend and ally and whoever threatened its existence would expose itself to our toughest response. To have peace, you need to know that France will always be on your side regarding your safety. Israel is the gateway to our own history. It is old Europe's friend and confidant," he concluded.

A few months later, in November 2014, despite these earlier words praising the Hebrew state, Fillon openly criticized the attitude of Israel on BFM TV. He explained that the country was "threatening world peace because it was delaying the creation of a Palestinian state" — a state he has pledged his desire to create since 2011.

"I am telling the Israelis that if they do not accept and if they do not understand that the creation of the Palestinian state is a sine qua non condition for peace in Middle East, they are not only taking risks for their long-term future, but they are also creating instability for the whole world. I think the situation in the Middle East is a threat to our own country's internal security," he said.

At the same time, however, he announced that he would not vote in favor of the resolution proposed by ecologists and socialist leaders who invited the French government to recognize the state of Palestine. He considered that this resolution "would have no effect, except perhaps to complicate the situation in Middle East."

In October 2015, the former Prime minister called on the international community to "put pressure on Israel" to make peace with Palestinians. "[Israel] is not going to be safe from the chaos that is taking hold of the Middle East," he declared on LCP TV.

"The idea that Israel could remain a peaceful and prosperous islet in the midst of this chaos is a crazy and false idea. We have to put pressure on Israel to resume the negotiation process and to let Israel liberate occupied territories. There will never be peace in Palestine if they are not willing to do this. Some settlements were established in total contradiction with commitments which were stated in previous agreements," he concluded.

On RMC radio a month later, he reiterated his call to put pressure on Israel for the resumption of the peace talks.

"The Palestinians are also responsible. The Hamas organization is unfortunately blocking the process and is not an interlocutor with whom one can easily find solutions," he said. "But at the same time, Palestinian territory is disappearing step by step because of the settlements. There is no solution in Israel without a Palestinian state."
'The Hamas organization is unfortunately... not an interlocutor with whom one can easily find solutions'
He also defended the idea of labeling products made in Judea, Samaria and the Golan during the interview — a measure that had been approved a few days earlier by the European authorities.
"It is very modest compared to what Europe should do," he said.
However, in February 2016, when the campaign for the primary elections had already begun, he declared during a debate organized by the CRIF organization that he did not have a "lesson to give to Israel because [he] was not living there."

Hopefuls take part in the first televised debate between the seven candidates for France's right-wing presidential nomination ahead of the 2017 presidential election, on October 13, 2016 at the studios of French private television channel TF1, north of Paris. (AFP PHOTO / POOL / Martin BUREAU)
"I am not against Israel but I am committed to the creation of a Palestinian state. I want peace," he argued. "There is a tendency to be tougher with Israel because it is a strong, organized and powerful country."
He also declared he was finally opposed to the labeling of Israeli products.
'There is a tendency to be tougher with Israel because it is a strong, organized and powerful country'
With these various statements and positions, we can legitimately wonder how Fillon would position his government on issues concerning Israel and Middle East if he is elected president of the French Republic after the second round of voting, on May 7.
As his recent remarks tend to suggest, would he really try to resume harmonious relations between France and Bashar al-Assad, Iran and Hezbollah to defeat the Islamic State while continuing to defend Israel's security and integrity?
If he chooses to adopt such a strategy, it can be feared in the worst case that none of the concerned parties will give him any confidence and credibility. In the meantime, we can still wonder whether François Fillon is Israel's friend or enemy.
JEWISH CULTURE n°263
By Gilberte JACARET


Kristallnacht

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The interior of the Fasanenstrasse Synagogue in Berlin after Kristallnacht


Kristallnacht (German. English: "Crystal Night") was a pogrom against Jews throughout Nazi Germany on 9–10 November 1938, carried out by SA paramilitary forces and German civilians. German authorities looked on without intervening. The name Kristallnacht comes from the shards of broken glass that littered the streets after Jewish-owned stores, buildings, and synagogues had their windows smashed.

Estimates of the number of fatalities caused by the pogrom have varied. Early reporting estimated that 91 Jewish people were murdered during the attacks. Modern analysis of German scholarly sources by historians such as Richard J. Evans puts the number much higher. When deaths from post-arrest maltreatment and subsequent suicides are included, the death toll climbs into the hundreds. Additionally, 30,000 were arrested and incarcerated in Nazi concentration camps.

Jewish homes, hospitals, and schools were ransacked, as the attackers demolished buildings with sledgehammers. Over 1,000 synagogues were burned (95 in Vienna alone) and over 7,000 Jewish businesses destroyed or damaged. Martin Gilbert writes that no event in the history of German Jews between 1933 and 1945 was so widely reported as it was happening, and the accounts from the foreign journalists working in Germany sent shock waves around the world. The Times wrote at the time: "No foreign propagandist bent upon blackening Germany before the world could outdo the tale of burnings and beatings, of blackguardly assaults on defenseless and innocent people, which disgraced that country yesterday."

The pretext for the attacks was the assassination of the German diplomat Ernst vom Rath by Herschel Grynszpan, a German-born Polish Jew living in Paris. Kristallnacht was followed by additional economic and political persecution of Jews, and is viewed by historians as part of Nazi Germany's broader racial policy, and the beginning of the Final Solution and The Holocaust.



German neo-Nazis publish list of Jewish sites to mark Kristallnacht

Police launch probe into map circulated on Facebook listing 70 Berlin-area synagogues, schools, restaurants and cemeteries
BY AFP November 10, 2016

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Illustrative: A neo-Nazi demonstration in Leipzig, Germany. (CC BY-SA Herder3, Wikimedia Commons)

BERLIN — German police launched an investigation Thursday after the addresses of Jewish institutions were published on Facebook by neo-Nazis, on the anniversary of the 1938 pogroms against Jews.
A map pointing out locations of almost 70 synagogues, Jewish kindergartens, schools, memorials, businesses, restaurants and cemeteries was posted on the Facebook page of a far-right Berlin group, reported Tagesspiegel daily.
The words "Jews among us!" appeared in the Gothic font used by Nazis on the map published on Wednesday, November 9, the day which marks the pogroms known as "Kristallnacht" or the "Night of the Broken Glass."
"A criminal complaint was filed over suspicion of incitement," a police spokeswoman told AFP, adding that Berlin officers were investigating.

An anti-far-right group called MBR, which had spotted the map on Facebook, together with the office of Green lawmaker Volker Beck informed the Jewish institutions listed to warn them of the neo-Nazi post, according to the Tagesspiegel.

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Kristallnacht destruction in Magdeburg, Germany, November 1938 (German Federal Archive/Wikipedia Commons)

The map was a chilling reminder of the lists of Jewish addresses published on the night of the 1938 pogroms.
During attacks of November 9 and 10, Nazi thugs plundered Jewish businesses throughout Germany, torched synagogues and rounded up about 30,000 Jewish men for deportation to concentration camps.
JEWISH CULTURE 249 By Gilberte JACARET



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Address
99 Dizengoff st.
Tel Aviv, 64396




Exhibitions

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Showing now!

Between the Private and Public Domains in Bauhaus and International Style Buildings in Tel Aviv

Book edited by Micha Gross
Photographs by Michael Craig Palmer and Ingrid Botschen

A photographer and architect cross thresholds to photograph the intermediate spaces between the public and private domains, between the exterior and interior of International Style and Bauhaus buildings in Tel Aviv.

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Exhibitions

The center includes a gallery that hosts changing exhibitions about Bauhaus architecture and design, the city of Tel Aviv and contemporary art, design and architecture. The exhibitions travel, and they have been shown in Berlin, Frankfurt, Delft (NL) and London.

Permanent exhibition

We also hold a permanent exhibition called "Revival Of The Bauhaus In Tel Aviv", exposing 25 of Tel Aviv's Bauhaus buildings in various media including archive photography, architectural plans and drawings. This is a great place to get a first concept of the main ideas of "The International Style" and to begin to grasp its impact on Tel Aviv.

Showcase of exhibitions

The complete history of exhibitions that have taken place at the Center is displayed on the website, year by year. It includes architectural exhibitions as well as poster design, photography, drawings and paintings by various Israeli and international artists.

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BAUHAUS

FRAGMENTS OF A STYLE exhibition International Style Architecture in Tel Aviv

Yigal Gawze's photographs capture the abstraction, the simplicity and the optimism of early modernism in Tel Aviv.
He distils the essence of the Bauhaus to bring it alive in a modern city and concentrates on the subtle effects of natural light upon architecture, a technique that the masters of the modern movement themselves applauded.

Nonie Niesewand author and design editor was the architectural correspondent for The Independent newspaper.

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Fragments is a personal inquiry into the aesthetics of an architectural style which has largely defined the urban fabric of Tel Aviv.

The abstract geometry created by the white facades protruding into space against the backdrop of the blue sky was the point of departure for the project. It was counterbalanced and enriched by the focus on past craftsmanship, present in the fine detailing of the banisters, stairs and windows.

"I chose to focus on the fragment - an essential part of the structure, which carries within it the genetic code of the whole.

It was also an attempt to convey something of the utopia of the years which saw the building of the "White City". Only in the last part of the work, did I step back to deal with the whole building and its relationship to the street as part of the city."

Yigal Gawze, photographer
JEWISH CULTURE 230 BY GILBERTE JACARET



'Exceptional' woman's 2,500-year-old seal unearthed in Jerusalem
First Temple-era relic bearing name 'Elihana bat Gael' discovered near City of David; second seal, a man's, located in same area
BY TIMES OF ISRAEL STAFF March 7, 2016


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A seal bearing the inscription: 'to Elihana bat Gael' (Clara Amit, courtesy of the Israel Antiquities Authority)


Two 2,500-year-old seals — one belonging to an "exceptional" woman — were found outside of Jerusalem's Old City, the Israel Antiquities Authority announced on Monday in what it termed a rare discovery.
The first First Temple-era find, made of semiprecious stone and bearing the name "Elihana bat Gael," indicated the woman who owned the seal was affluent. The second seal, found in the same area, belonged to "Sa'aryahu ben Shabenyahu."
"Finding seals that bear names from the time of the First Temple is hardly a commonplace occurrence, and finding a seal that belonged to a woman is an even rarer phenomenon," the IAA said in a statement.
The "owner of the seal was exceptional compared to other women of the First Temple period: she had legal status which allowed her to conduct business and possess property," it said.
Archaeologists believe the building where the two seals were located — in what is now the Givati parking lot — served as an administrative center.


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A general view of the site. (Israel Antiquities Authority)


"The name Eliha is known from a contemporary Ammonite seal and is the feminine form of the name Eli, known from the Bible," said the IAA.
"Seals that belonged to women represent just a very small proportion of all the seals that have been discovered to date. This is because of the generally inferior economic status of women, apart from extraordinary instances such as this," said Dr. Hagai Misgav of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem.
"Most of the women's seals that are known to us bear the name of the father rather than that of the husband. Here, as in other cases, this might indicate the relatively elevated status of Elihana, which depended on her original family, and not on her husband's family. It seems that Elihana maintained her right to property and financial independence even after her marriage and therefore her father's name was retained; however, we do not have sufficient information about the law in Judah during this period," he added.


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A seal bearing the inscription: 'to Sa'aryahu ben Shabenyahu' (Clara Amit, courtesy of the Israel Antiquities Authority)


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The wall of the building from the First Temple period where the seals were found. According to the archaeologists an administrative center was probably located there during the First Temple period. (Courtesy/IAA)


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A seal bearing the inscription: 'to Elihana bat Gael' (Clara Amit, courtesy of the Israel Antiquities Authority)



Huge Canaanite burial ground found near Bethlehem, shows city thrived 4,200 years ago
Finds at cemetery, which was abandoned after the Assyrians conquered area from the Hebrew kings, cast new light on ancient burial practices
BY SUE SURKES March 7, 2016


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The opening to two of the tombs at the Khalet al-Jam'a necropolis near the town of Bethlehem. Credit: ®ROSAPAJ - Sapienza University Rome



Archaeologists have discovered a massive Canaanite burial ground near Bethlehem, establishing for the first time that the city thrived 4,200 years ago, thanks to its strategic position between its ancient sister cities, Jerusalem and Hebron.
The necropolis, named Khalet al-Jam´a, contains more than 100 tombs, Haaretz reported Monday, dating from around 2200 BCE to 650 BCE.
Discovered by Italian and Palestinian archaeologists, the tombs were intended for generations of the same family, in a practice described in the bible as "lying down with one's forefathers." The tombs were carved into the soft limestone rock.
Although many of the tombs have been looted in the past or damaged by modern building, the archaeologists were able to retrieve fine bowls, jugs, lamps, Bronze Age weapons and scarabs — amulets mounted on rings — which, according to Lorenzo Nigro, head of the excavation and professor at Sapienza University of Rome, show the direct connection between the ruling class in southern Palestine and the Pharaonic court of 1750-1650 BCE in Avaris, in the Nile Delta.
During the Iron Age, burial practices changed and came more into line with those found typically in Jerusalem, the report said. Instead of piling bodies in, one after the other, individual bodies were laid on a shelf in a specially cut chamber, or in slots carved into the chamber walls.
Bethlehem came under the rule of the Hebrew kings of Judah as early as the 8th century BCE, and remained so into the 7th century BCE. The Bethlehem burial site was abandoned after the Assyrians conquered Judah and relocated its communities.

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